In statisticsengineeringeconomicsand порнографии censored researchпорнографии censored is a condition in which the value of a measurement or observation is only partially known. For example, suppose a study is conducted to measure the impact of a порнографии censored on mortality rate. Such a situation could occur if the individual withdrew from the study at age 75, or if the individual is currently alive at the age of Censoring also occurs when a value occurs outside the range of a measuring instrument.
The problem of censored data, in which the observed value of some variable is partially known, is related to the problem of missing datawhere the observed value of some variable is unknown.
Censoring should not be confused with the related idea truncation. With censoring, observations result either in knowing the exact value that applies, or in knowing that the value lies порнографии censored an interval.
With truncation, observations never result in values outside a given range: Note that in statistics, truncation is not the same as rounding. Interval censoring can occur when observing a value порнографии censored follow-ups or inspections.
Left and right censoring are special cases of interval censoring, with the beginning of the interval at zero or the end at infinity, respectively. Estimation methods for using left-censored data vary, and not all methods of estimation may be applicable to, or the most reliable, for all data sets. A common misconception порнографии censored time interval data is to class as left censored intervals where the start time is unknown.
In these cases we have a lower bound on the time interval, thus the data is right censored despite the fact that the missing start порнографии censored is to the left of the known interval when viewed as a timeline! Special techniques may be used to порнографии censored censored data.
Tests with specific failure times are coded as actual failures; censored data are coded for the type of censoring and the known interval or порнографии censored. Special software programs порнографии censored reliability oriented can conduct a maximum likelihood estimation for summary statistics, confidence intervals, etc. Reliability testing often consists of conducting a test on an item under specified conditions порнографии censored determine the time it takes for a failure to occur.
An analysis of the data from replicate tests includes both the times-to-failure for the items that failed and the time-of-test-termination for those that did not fail. Порнографии censored earlier model for censored regressionthe Tobit model, was proposed by James Tobin in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Much ado about next to Nothing: Incorporating Nondetects in Science, Ann. Mean arithmetic geometric harmonic Median Mode.
Central limit theorem Moments Skewness Kurtosis L-moments.
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Correlation Regression analysis Correlation Pearson product-moment Partial correlation Confounding variable Coefficient of determination.
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